Teacher(s)
Language
English
Main themes
The main themes of this teaching unit are charge particle optics, atomic and electronic collisions, and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.
We elaborate on the means to produce, store and guide charged particles using electric and magnetic fields. We illustrate the relevance of this knowhow to the study of cross sections of collisions or photoninduced processes. An emphasis is then put on ultrasensitive and precise techniques of spectroscopy using the detection of photons or of charged particles. Different cooling techniques, i.e. supersonic expansion and buffer gas cooling, are also presented to simplify and enhance quantized signatures in absorption or collision experiments.
We elaborate on the means to produce, store and guide charged particles using electric and magnetic fields. We illustrate the relevance of this knowhow to the study of cross sections of collisions or photoninduced processes. An emphasis is then put on ultrasensitive and precise techniques of spectroscopy using the detection of photons or of charged particles. Different cooling techniques, i.e. supersonic expansion and buffer gas cooling, are also presented to simplify and enhance quantized signatures in absorption or collision experiments.
Aims
At the end of this learning unit, the student is able to :  
1 
a. Contribution of the teaching unit to the learning outcomes of the programme (PHYS2M and PHYS2M1) AA 1.1, AA 1.2, AA1.3, AA1.4, AA 1.5, AA1.6, AA2.1, AA2.2, AA 3.1, AA 4.2, AA5.1, AA5.2, AA 5.3,AA 6.1, AA 7.2, AA 7.3, AA7.5, AA8.1, AA 8.2 b. Specific learning outcomes of the teaching unit At the end of this teaching unit, the student will be able to : 1. determine the most efficient experimental methodology to study a problem in atomic or molecular physics ; 2. know what are the limitations and advantages of various experimental techniques in atomic and molecular physics ; 3. identify the methods in use in scientific publications and evaluate their pertinence 4. put into equations the trajectory of charged particle beam and simulate it with appropriate software tools ; 5. identify and characterize the elements of a particle accelerator. 
Content
The teaching unit will adopt the following structure :
1) Charged particle optics
Absorption spectroscopy
Visits to a large European experimental facility will be organised.
1) Charged particle optics


 generation of charged particles: electron, positron, ion
 basic principles of charged particle optics : general equations of motion, paraxial approximation and applications to electric and magnetic fields
 concept of emittance: Liouville theorem and derivation of the beam envelope in phase space
 practical training with real beams and simulation tools



 velocity distributions : gas cell, effusive and supersonic beam
 velocity selection : rotating slit, Doppler, fast beam
 kinematics of beambeam interaction : crossed beams, merged beams
 form factor : the animated beam method
 detection techniques : surface ionization, laserinduced fluorescence, electron multipliers, position sensitive detectors
 analysis methods : translational spectroscopy, coincidence detection, 3D imaging
 ion traps : Penning trap, Paul trap, quadrupole trap, electrostatic cavity
 storage rings : electronion interaction, sympathetic and stochastic cooling

Absorption spectroscopy
 frequency modulation
 principle of a lockin amplifier
 cavity enhanced and cavity ringdown spectroscopy
 NICEOHMS spectroscopy
 photofragmentation spectroscopy
 photoelectron spectroscopy
 spectroscopy in an iontrap
Visits to a large European experimental facility will be organised.
Teaching methods
Lectures, laboratories, practical project, commented laboratory tours.
Evaluation methods
The evaluation will be based on an individual project and its oral presentation.
Bibliography
H. Wollnik, Optics of Charged Particles (Academic Press, Orlando, 1987).
Highresolution molecular spectroscopy, handbook, Wiley online library 2011.
Highresolution molecular spectroscopy, handbook, Wiley online library 2011.
Faculty or entity